Mikrobiyoloji bulteni, vol.51, no.2, pp.183-190, 2017 (SCI-Expanded)
Coccidioidomycosis caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii is a rare infectious disease except in endemic regions. In this report the third documented imported case of coccidioidomycosis in Turkey was presented. A thirty-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital with fever and purulent drainage from his chest tube. He had worked in Arizona, USA, until 4 months before this presentation. While in Arizona, he experienced cough and hemoptysis and was diagnosed as pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. He was treated with itraconazole for two months and he had no symptoms for 3 years. He then returned to Turkey and 2 months after his return to Turkey, he was admitted to another hospital in Istanbul with dyspnea and diagnosed as hydro-pneumothorax, and pleural fluid obtained from the inserted chest tube was found to be purulent. One gram of BID amoxicillin-clavulanate was given. Physical examination on admission revealed a purulent drainage on the right side chest tube, a temperature of 38.5 degrees C and decreased breath sounds on the right lung. Piperacillin-tazobactam 3 x 4.5 g intravenous and fluconazole 400 mg intravenous once daily were started. Human immunodeficiency virus test was negative. Gram-negative diplococci and rods, gram-positive cocci and septate hyphae were seen in the Gram stain of his pleural fluid. Pleural fluid culture revealed Moraxella catarrhalis after 24 hours incubation and a mold after 72 hours of incubation. Anti-coccidioidal antibodies were found positive in a titer of 1/2. Hydro-pneumothorax, atelectasis and a 3 mm nodules in the right lung were seen in his thorax CT. The patient's pleural fluid and the culture plates were sent to the Public Health Institute of Turkey, Mycology Reference Laboratory (PHIT-MRL), with a clinical suspicion of coccidioidomycosis. The specimen and plates were submitted to the PHIT-MRL Bio Safety Level-3 laboratory for mycological evaluation. The microscopic examination of 15% KOH preparations of pleural fluid specimens revealed septate hyphae which appear to be in the early stages of forming arthroconidia. The pleural fluid culture grew buff-white coloured colonies with aerial hyphae, which were suspected of being a Coccidioides spp. The strain was identified as C. immitis/posadasii by direct microscopy and culture, and subsequently confirmed by the FDA-approved DNA probe. DNA sequence analysis of the ITS and D1/D2 rDNA regions confirmed the isolate to be C. posadasii species [ITS 100% match to GenBank Accession No. AB232901 (630/630 base pair match), and D1/D2 100% match to GenBank Accession No. AB232884 (617/617 base pair match)]. ITS1 and ITS2 barcode analysis also confirmed the species to be C. posadasii, which is the species endemic in Arizona. Susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M38- A2 guidelines in the Fungus Testing Laboratory of the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and minimal inhibitory concentration values were; 0.125 mu g/ml for amphotericin B, posaconazole and voriconazole, 0.5 mu g/ml for itraconazole and 8 mu g/ml for fluconazole. He had decortication of the pleura and was discharged from hospital after six weeks treatment with intravenous fluconazole which was continued orally for one year. Anti- coccidioidal antibodies were negative after two months of treatment. The patient is currently asymptomatic.