DNA Damage Estimation after Chronic and Combined Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors: An In Vivo Real-Life Risk Simulation Approach

Karzi V., Ozcagli E., Tzatzarakis M. N., Vakonaki E., Fragkiadoulaki I., Kalliantasi A., ...More

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, no.12, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/ijms24129989
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Exposure to chemical substances has always been a matter of concern for the scientific community. During the last few years, researchers have been focusing on studying the effects resulting from combined exposure to different substances. In this study, we aimed to determine the DNA damage caused after chronic and combined exposure to substances characterized as endocrine disruptors using comet and micronuclei assays, specifically glyphosate (pure and commercial form), bisphenol A, parabens (methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben), triclosan and bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The highest mean tail intensity was observed in the group exposed to a high-dose (10 x ADI) mixture of substances (Group 3), with a mean value of 11.97 (11.26-13.90), while statistically significant differences were noticed between the groups exposed to low-dose (1 x ADI) (Group 2) and high-dose (10 x ADI) (Group 3) mixtures of substances (p = 0.003), and between Group 3 and both groups exposed to high doses (10 x ADI) of the pure and commercial forms of glyphosate (Groups 4 (p = 0.014) and 5 (p = 0.007)). The micronuclei assay results were moderately correlated with the exposure period. Group 5 was the most impacted exposure group at all sampling times, with mean MN counts ranging between 28.75 & PLUSMN; 1.71 and 60.75 & PLUSMN; 1.71, followed by Group 3 (18.25 & PLUSMN; 1.50-45.75 & PLUSMN; 1.71), showing that commercial forms of glyphosate additives as well as mixtures of endocrine disruptors can enhance MN formation. All exposure groups showed statistically significant differences in micronuclei counts with an increasing time trend.