Centaurea malatyensis S. Kultur & M. Bona sp. nova (Asteraceae) is described as new to science from East Anatolia (B6: Malatya: Turkey). It is morphologically similar to C. leptophylla but differs mainly in its stem, basal and cauline leaf shape and size, achene, pappus and phyllary appendages. The geographical distribution of the new species and its relatives is mapped. The ecology and conservation status of the new species is also presented. Micromorphological structures of achenes of C. malatyensis and C. leptophylla are examined by SEM.