Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an early and severe complication in ADPKD patients. Two decades ago, the prevalence of LVH on echocardiography in hypertensive ADPKD patients was shown to be as high as 46%. Recent studies using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have shown that the prevalence of LVH in ADPKD patients may be lower. The true prevalence of LVH in ADPKD patients is controversial. There is evidence that factors other than hypertension contribute to LVH in ADPKD patients. Studies have shown that young normotensive ADPKD adults and children have a higher left ventricular mass index compared to controls and that the prevalence of LVH is high in patients with ADPKD whose blood pressure is well controlled. Polycystin-1 (PC-1) and polycystin-2 (PC-2) control intracellular signaling pathways that can influence cardiac function. Perturbations of PC-1 or PC-2 in the heart can lead to profound changes in cardiac structure and function independently of kidney function or blood pressure. PC-1 can influence mammalian target of rapamycin and mitophagy and PC-2 can influence autophagy, processes that play a role in LVH. Polymorphisms in the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene may play a role in LVH in ADPKD. This review will detail the pathophysiology of LVH, beyond hypertension, in ADPKD.