Food-induced anaphylaxis in early childhood and factors associated with its severity


Aydogan M., Topal E., Yakıcı N., Acar H. C., Demirkale Z., Arga M., ...More

Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, vol.42, no.5, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 42 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.2500/aap.2021.42.210051
  • Journal Name: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Copyright © 2021, OceanSide Publications, Inc., U.S.A.Background: Several factors that increase the risk of severe food-induced anaphylaxis have been identified. Objective: We aimed to determine the demographic, etiologic, and clinical features of food-induced anaphylaxis in early childhood and also any other factors associated with severe anaphylaxis. Methods:We carried out a medical chart review of anaphylaxis cases from 16 pediatric allergy and immunology centers in Turkey. Results: The data of 227 patients with 266 food-induced anaphylaxis episodes were included in the study. The median (interquartile range) age of the first anaphylaxis episode was 9 months (6-18 months); 160 of these patients were boys (70.5%). The anaphylaxis episodes were mild in 75 cases (28.2%), moderate in 154 cases (57.9%), and severe in 37 cases (13.9%). The most frequent food allergens involved were cow's milk (47.4%), nuts (16.7%), and hen's egg (15.8%). Epinephrine was administered in only 98 (36.8%) of these anaphylaxis episodes. A logistic regression analysis revealed two statistically significant factors that were independently associated with severe anaphylaxis: the presence of angioedema and hoarseness during the anaphylactic episode. Urticaria was observed less frequently in patients who developed hypotension. In addition, confusion and syncope were associated with 25.9- and 44.6-fold increases, respectively, in the risk of concomitant hypotension. Conclusion: Cow's milk, nuts, and hen's egg caused the majority of mild and moderate-to-severe anaphylaxis episodes. The presence of angioedema and hoarseness in any patient who presents with a history of food-induced anaphylaxis should alert clinicians that the reaction may be severe. In addition, the presence of confusion, syncope, or stridor probably indicates concomitant hypotension.