Growth pattern, mortality and reproductive biology of common sole, Solea solea (Linneaus, 1758), in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey

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Kahraman A. E., Yıldız T., Uzer U., Çanak Ö.

Oceanological And Hydrobiological Studies, vol.50, no.4, pp.398-410, 2021 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 50 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.2478/oandhs-2021-0034
  • Journal Name: Oceanological And Hydrobiological Studies
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Geobase, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.398-410
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


The study deals with the growth pattern, mortality, and reproduction of common sole, Solea solea (Linneaus, 1758), from the Sea of Marmara (Turkey). A total of 580 fish specimens were sampled monthly from October 2017 to September 2018. The total length of all sampled individuals ranged from 11.1 to 29.5 cm, corresponding to ages from 1 to 3 years. The length–weight relationship was expressed as W = 0.022 TL2.6838, where the slope indicated negative allometric growth. Growth parameters were L∞ = 33.7 cm, k = 0.48, and t0 = −0.18 for all samples. A seasonally oscillating growth model, indicating the amplitude of oscillations, revealed an important seasonal growth pattern. Total, natural, and fishing mortality rates were calculated as 1.42, 0.47, and 1.01, respectively. The exploitation ratio (E = 0.68) indicates that the fishing pressure on the common sole in the Sea of Marmara was high. The sex ratio (♀/♂) was 1.18. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) for females showed that two main spawning seasons were observed: one in spring (May) and one in autumn (September–October). Sizes at the onset of sexual maturity were estimated for both females and males at 21.6 and 18.6 cm, respectively.