Socio-Economic, Demographic and Health Determinants of the COVID-19 Outbreak


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ÖZYILMAZ A., BAYRAKTAR Y., Toprak M., Isik E., Guloglu T., Aydin S., ...More

HEALTHCARE, vol.10, no.4, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 10 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/healthcare10040748
  • Journal Name: HEALTHCARE
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: COVID-19, prevalence of COVID-19, health, socioeconomic, quantile regression, CORRUPTION
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Objective: In this study, the effects of social and health indicators affecting the number of cases and deaths of the COVID-19 pandemic were examined. For the determinants of the number of cases and deaths, four models consisting of social and health indicators were created. Methods: In this quantitative research, 93 countries in the model were used to obtain determinants of the confirmed cases and determinants of the COVID-19 fatalities. Results: The results obtained from Model I, in which the number of cases was examined with social indicators, showed that the number of tourists, the population between the ages of 15 and 64, and institutionalization had a positive effect on the number of cases. The results obtained from the health indicators of the number of cases show that cigarette consumption affects the number of cases positively in the 50th quantile, the death rate under the age of five affects the number of cases negatively in all quantiles, and vaccination positively affects the number of cases in 25th and 75th quantile values. Findings from social indicators of the number of COVID-19 deaths show that life expectancy negatively affects the number of deaths in the 25th and 50th quantiles. The population over the age of 65 and CO2 positively affect the number of deaths at the 25th, 50th, and 75th quantiles. There is a non-linear relationship between the number of cases and the number of deaths at the 50th and 75th quantile values. An increase in the number of cases increases the number of deaths to the turning point; after the turning point, an increase in the number of cases decreases the death rate. Herd immunity has an important role in obtaining this finding. As a health indicator, it was seen that the number of cases positively affected the number of deaths in the 50th and 75th quantile values and the vaccination rate in the 25th and 75th quantile values. Diabetes affects the number of deaths positively in the 75th quantile. Conclusion: The population aged 15-64 has a strong impact on COVID-19 cases, but in COVID-19 deaths, life expectancy is a strong variable. On the other hand, it has been found that vaccination and the number of cases interaction term has an effect on the mortality rate. The number of cases has a non-linear effect on the number of deaths.