A liturgic object used in Iran the holy day of Âshūrâ' on the tenth day of muharram: “Standard” representing the banner of al-husayn b. 'Alî B. Abî tâlib Iran'da muharrem ayi aşura törenlerinde (taziye) kullanilan litürjik bir obje: Hz. hüseyin'in sancağini temsilen “alem”


Turk Kulturu ve Haci Bektas Veli - Arastirma Dergisi, no.92, pp.171-206, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier


© 2019 Ankara Haci Bayram Veli University. All rights reserved.The Karbalā Case, which is remembered with deep sorrow and pain in every society of the Islamic world, has unfortunately resulted in the martyrdom of many people, especially al-Husayn b. 'Alī b. Abī Tālib and his family. The Karbalā Case is commemorated every year on Ashura day in Muharram with specific rituals. This study focuses on a “Standard” that was determined inside the (Imamzadeh) Hazrat Halīma and Amine Mosque, in Qazvin, Iran. This sacred object needs investigation for its arrangement and brought to mind the search for similar object in Turkey. This object is arranged upon placing a number of realms on a metal assembly and carrying them on a metal stick. There are inscriptions on each of the standards that make up the great standard. Symbolic meanings were conveyed by placing animal figures such as lions holding swords in their hands, dragon, rooster, deer, coach, goat, peacock. These standards reach up to a width of 4 m. according to the multiplicity of the standards in which they occur and have a magnificent appearance as they are decorated with materials such as fabrics and feathers during rituals. This study revealed that these standards and similar ones that we are dealing with are used in āshūrā rituals in Iran and therefore their number is quite high. According to the findings, the standards stand in places that are attributed to Imamzadeh and similar sanctity, groups (decks) in charge of carrying the standard in āshūrā rituals take the standard from this place and carry it during the ceremonial marches, and the public visits the standard for healing purposes. The historical background that makes up liturgical use of the standard shows that standard-bearer Hz. Abbas, who was carrying the banner of Hz. Hussein in the Karbalā Case, was martyred and the banner representing Hz. Hussein fell. It is possible to say that standard carried in the āshūrā rituals was used to carry the banner again which fell to the ground and thus was used to express the immortality of the Hz. Hussein. It is understood that it is a liturgical object representing Hz. Hussein with the support of the expressions in the inscriptions and the symbolic meanings of the animal figures on the standard and along with other symbolic objects such as kasim otai or nahil used in rituals, it appears to have an important place in the ritual. Furthermore, it is understood from the standard found in the museum collections that the standards were made in the XVIth century when the āshūrā rituals began to be performed regularly. According to the findings, the use of the standards is seen in geographies such as Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Azerbaijan where the Shia view prevails and this practice is not common in the Alevi-Bektashi faith in Turkey. Only in Iğdır region, the use of the hand-shaped (Pençe-i Alî Aba) standard in āshūrā rituals appears as a region-specific ritual. Thus, the use of standard, is another differences seen in the month of Muharram rituals in Alevi-Bektashi belief in Turkey's geography is dominated by the Shiite faith.