The 12th International Congress of Ottoman Social and Economic History (ICOSEH), Viyana, Austria, 11 - 15 July 2011, pp.30-32
Activities of “Islamic Association of Women Employment” and its Influences on Ottomans Working Life on the Basis of the Context of Social Responsibilities (1916-1923)
The duration after second constitutionalism that is proclaimed in 1908, affected political, social and economical structure of Ottoman Empire, as well as its state of production and working order significantly. Second constitutionalism is at the same time an important landmark in terms of the situation that generally ottoman women or more specifically muslim-turkish women participated in working life and began appearing on the foreground of economical events. With and after this period of time, besides political, economical and martial instability, there have occured destructive and enormous balkan wars, tripoli wars and first world war. After these incidents the negative heritage that was left on working life and labor force, has been a decrease in population and also the situation that most men who are the most important components of economic life, must have gone to front lines by resigning from economical life. The amount of men labor force decreased significantly in the time period after the year of 1910 when in press and opinion poll, the idea regarding women should take more place in social and economical life, became common. This circumstance made the situation of women participating in working life, obligation rather than just a choice. In this sense, thousands of 28 women got employed as civil servants, employers in private and government agencies, in factories, in their own houses, in production units that were established by various organizations and associations. Women magazines and papers that began publishing after second constitutionalism, with women associations and organizations made significant contributions on women increment to be employed. The most prominent association among all has been ``Islamic Association of Women Employment`` that was established in 1916 and only 4 months after that, 14.000 women already submitted applications and after the first year 25.254 women were already provided to be employed. The association, besides various public agencies and private organizations, provided women members to make production in their houses with the help of the branches that the association has set up itself. Therefore, it enabled an opportunity for rising up the hopes and neutralized the prejudices existing in press and public opinion regarding Turkish women`s participation and coming forward in social and economical life. Due to women constitute an important portion of population and total labor supply, the participation of women in economical life and increment of them to be employed is very essential in terms of using economical sources optimally. However on the other hand it has negative social conclusions as much as having affirmative economical consequences. With the rise of women participation in working life in 18th and 19th centuries when Europe working-class arose and institutionalized, there are many examples on corruption of family life and social structure. At this point, the importance of ``Islamic Association of Women Employment`` emerges in terms of the study that we perform. The association, while working hard for employing more women, at the same time setting some social goals and struggling for supporting population policy of government and protecting social structure and family life as much as possible. The association performed activities or doings concerning social goals and determined them on the basis of having women participate in working life but preventing all bad influence of this to social structure and family life and also tried to carry out these activities within the framework of social responsibility. In this dissertation, discussing the activities of the association in the context of social responsibility and on the basis of periodicals of 1916 and after that date and The Prime Ministry Ottoman Archive papers is aimed to be prepared in detail. In the context of this purpose, what kind of effects are there on the social structure of Ottoman with the impact of rising of women`s participation into the labour market in Ottoman is discussed. In addition, in contradistinction to the limited studies on this association, related association`s preparing and implementing marriage regulations and evaluating their members in the context of education and social aspects in order to prevent the crises inside the family which were existed because of the women`s increasing participation into the labour life in the European History is discussed.