Bacteriophage Therapy of Bacterial Infections: The Rediscovered Frontier

Düzgüneş N., Sessevmez M. , Yildirim M.

PHARMACEUTICALS, vol.14, no.1, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/ph14010034
  • Title of Journal : PHARMACEUTICALS
  • Keywords: lytic infection, antibiotic-resistance, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, phage production, magistral phage, pulmonary delivery, oral administration, topical delivery


Antibiotic-resistant infections present a serious health concern worldwide. It is estimated that there are 2.8 million antibiotic-resistant infections and 35,000 deaths in the United States every year. Such microorganisms include Acinetobacter, Enterobacterioceae, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Mycobacterium. Alternative treatment methods are, thus, necessary to treat such infections. Bacteriophages are viruses of bacteria. In a lytic infection, the newly formed phage particles lyse the bacterium and continue to infect other bacteria. In the early 20th century, d'Herelle, Bruynoghe and Maisin used bacterium-specific phages to treat bacterial infections. Bacteriophages are being identified, purified and developed as pharmaceutically acceptable macromolecular "drugs," undergoing strict quality control. Phages can be applied topically or delivered by inhalation, orally or parenterally. Some of the major drug-resistant infections that are potential targets of pharmaceutically prepared phages are Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Acinetobacter baumannii.