High Rates of Psychiatric Disorders and Below Normal Mental Capacity Associated With Spastic Peroneal Flatfoot: A New Relationship.

Kilicoglu O. I., Salduz A., Birisik F., Bilgili F., Polat G., Kaya İ., ...More

The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons, vol.57, no.3, pp.501-504, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


Spastic peroneal flatfoot (SPFF) is a rare hindfoot pathology usually seen in the adolescent age group that is characterized by painful spasms in the peroneal muscles. We have clinically observed that patients with SPFF also have some behavioral and emotional difficulties and problems in their academic achievements. Because of these observations, we investigated the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric disorders and intellectual disability among young subjects with SPFF. Our cohort consisted of 16 patients with SPFF. Their mean age at presentation was 21 (range 13 to 31) years. Only 6 patients had a tarsal coalition as an underlying condition. The psychometric evaluation was conducted using validated instruments (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-revised form, Stanford Binet intelligence quotient IIQI test, and Cattell IQ test). Psychiatric disorders were assessed using a semistructured diagnostic instrument (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children Present and Lifetime Version). The testers and psychiatrists were unaware of the orthopedic condition and the preliminary psychiatric diagnoses. The ethical committee approved the study protocol. The mean follow-up period was 41 (range 12 to 97) months. The mean IQ score of the patients was 75.1 +/- 17.9 (range 52 to 107). Compared with the general population, the rate of intellectual disability was significantly greater (p = .0001) and the rate of normal intelligence significantly lower (p = .0015) in our patient group. Furthermore, according to the community schooling ratio, our cohort also had lower junior high and secondary education rates compared with the general population. The rate of most psychiatric disorders diagnosed in the SPFF patients was greater than that in the normal population. The most commonly identified psychiatric disorders were social phobia and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (75%). Timely interventions of the psychosocial and academic problems of patients with SPFF might increase their compliance with orthopedic treatment and help with their psychological well-being and academic achievement. In addition, this relationship might be a clue for uncovering the etiology of this disease, which has not yet been clarified. (C) 2017 by the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. All rights reserved.