Heavy metal deposition in moss samples from East and South Marmara Region, Turkey

Coskun M., ÇAYIR A., Coskun M., Kilic O.

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT, vol.174, pp.219-227, 2011 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 174
  • Publication Date: 2011
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10661-010-1452-1
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.219-227
  • Keywords: Moss, Heavy metal, Atmospheric pollution, Biomonitoring, ICP-AES, GIS, ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION, HYPNUM-CUPRESSIFORME, POLLUTION
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


A survey of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the east and south Marmara region, Turkey was carried out in September 2004. For this purpose, moss samples (Hypnum cupressiforme) were collected in a systematic network of 125 sites. Concentrations of the elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Fe, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, Mg, Ti, and Zn) in the moss were used as an indication of the level of air pollution in the region. Significant differences in heavy metal concentrations, especially for Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn, were recorded in the moss samples collected around industrialized and heavily populated cities (Istanbul, Bursa, BandA +/- rma, Kocaeli, Biga-Can) and in an abandoned lead-mining area (BalA +/- kesir-Balya). A map of the spatial distribution of each element in the region was plotted, and enrichment factors were calculated. VARIMAX principal component analysis was applied to the data obtained, and five different components were obtained. The results showed that Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn derived from anthropogenic and industrial sources while other elements came mostly from natural sources.