Cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can have implications on the pathogenesis of neuro-Behcet's disease (NB). CSF and serum samples from 33 patients with NB, 25 with multiple sclerosis (MS), 20 patients with infectious and/or inflammatory neurological diseases (IN) and 14 with other noninflammatory neurological diseases (NIN) were investigated by ELISA. In the CSF, CXCL10 levels were significantly higher in NB and IN than NIN and MS, whereas CXCL8 was increased in NB compared to NIN. CCL2 levels in MS CSF and sera were lower, whereas CXCL8 in MS sera was higher than the other groups. IL-12 was elevated in CSF of IN compared to NB and NIN and also in the CSF of MS compared to NIN. No difference was detected for IL-10 and IL-17. These results reflect that NB has a mediator pattern in resemblance with non-specific inflammations such as neuro-infections compared to autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis, suggesting that a currently unknown infection might be the trigger of a vasculitic process in the central nervous system (CNS). (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved.