Every country follows a different program for teaching the mother tongue. In some countries, states apply different programs for their students and in some the national education program is central and applied in the same way throughout the country. Turkiye and France apply the programs defined by their ministries of national education. In this study, the Turkish teaching program and French teaching program in primary schools have been analyzed and compared in terms of learning outcomes and program structure. The common points and differences between the programs have been identified. Students start systematic language learning in primary school. When students have proficiency in their mother language, they become successful learners in other fields of study. Thus, primary schools play a vital role in educating individuals by raising their awareness about the importance of using their mother language appropriately and effectively. In Turkiye, primary school is 4 years and it is not divided into parts. In France primary school is 5 years and it is divided into two parts in terms of students’ skills development. Students’ language development starts with the family and continues at school. The role of classroom teachers and mother language teachers cannot be overlooked.