Primary Glomerular Diseases and Novel Biomarkers

Safak S., Caliskan Y.

TURKISH JOURNAL OF NEPHROLOGY, vol.31, no.2, pp.93-102, 2022 (ESCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 31 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.5152/turkjnephrol.2022.21253
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.93-102
  • Keywords: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, glomerular disease, immunoglobulin A nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, membranous nephropathy, FOCAL SEGMENTAL GLOMERULOSCLEROSIS, IMMUNOGLOBULIN-A NEPHROPATHY, IGA NEPHROPATHY, C3 GLOMERULOPATHY, MEMBRANOUS NEPHROPATHY, UROKINASE RECEPTOR, NATURAL-HISTORY, CELL ACTIVATION, SCORING SYSTEM, RENAL-DISEASE
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Glomerulonephritis is the third most common cause of end-stage kidney disease. The presentation, clinical course, and outcome of glomerular diseases are highly variable. A kidney biopsy is always needed to clarify the diagnosis; however, performing a kidney biopsy is limited by several factors such as bleeding disorders, obesity, and other comorbid conditions. There is a need for less invasive, simple, and reproducible tests, especially by using blood and urine samples, which could replace kidney biopsy. Our review focuses on the novel clinical, histopathological, blood, and urine biomarkers to make an accurate diagnosis and predict the prognosis of primary glomerular diseases including immunoglobulin A nephropathy, membranous nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Overall, although there are promising biomarkers for glomerulonephritis, long-term evaluation of these biomarkers is still needed.