Long-term prognosis of patients with photosensitive idiopathic generalized epilepsy: Prognosis of Photosensitive Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy Patients

Yılmaz Erol T., Cerrahoğlu Şirin T., Görkem Şirin N., Bebek N., Baykan B.

Seizure, vol.117, pp.235-243, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 117
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.seizure.2024.02.019
  • Journal Name: Seizure
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Psycinfo
  • Page Numbers: pp.235-243
  • Keywords: Electroencephalography, Epilepsy, Photoparoxysmal response, Photosensitivity, Prognosis
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: No


Objective: The long-term prognosis of photosensitive idiopathic generalized epilepsy (p-IGE) is generally considered favorable; however, its specific characteristics remain unclear. Our objective was to investigate the extended prognosis of p-IGE. Methods: We analyzed the demographics, clinical, and electroencephalographic (EEG) data of consecutive patients who were diagnosed as having p-IGE, who were under follow-up for a minimum of 10 years and exhibited a photoparoxysmal response (PPR) in their EEGs. Prognostic data, epilepsy course types, and electroclinical variables were compared using appropriate statistical methods. Results: The mean follow-up duration for 108 consecutive patients with p-IGE (74.1 % female) was 16.8 ± 6.5 years. The main syndromes within this cohort included juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (37 %), juvenile absence epilepsy (15.7 %), and epilepsy with eyelid myoclonia (EEM) (14.8 %). In terms of epilepsy course types, 27.8 % were in the relapse-remission group, and 13.9 % had never experienced remission. A low early remission rate (5.6 %) was evident, with the remaining half of the cohort categorized as the late remission group. Several significant poor prognostic factors were identified including self-induction, clinical symptoms accompanying PPR, asynchrony and focal findings in EEG discharges, a wide frequency range of PPR, the coexistence of three seizure types, the presence of accompanying focal seizure features, and a history of convulsive status epilepticus. Conclusions: Our long-term follow-up study, conducted within a substantial p-IGE group, unveiled newly proposed course types within this epilepsy category and highlighted significant poor prognostic factors related to photosensitivity. These findings furnish valuable insights for precise prognosis counselling and effective management strategies for patients with p-IGE.