Background: Adipocytokines have been implied to be involved in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. MS patients whose first clinical episode is optic neuritis (ON) have been reported to display a milder disease course. In this study, we aimed to show whether this milder disease course is related to reduced adipokine production. Methods: A total of 55 (24 with ON as the first clinical episode) relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients and 40 healthy individuals were recruited. Concentrations of adipokines were measured in sera by ELISA. Results: The levels of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL-8 were significantly higher in RRMS patients compared with healthy controls. RRMS cases starting with ON had lower expanded disability status scale scores. Serum adiponectin, leptin, resistin and MCP-1 levels were significantly lower in MS patients, whose first clinical episode was ON. Conclusions: MS patients with ON as the first manifestation display both lower disability scores and reduced serum adipokine levels implying that adipocytokine production is associated with MS progression. Exact mechanisms of this association in MS patients with first episode ON need to be further studied.