Breast cancer is a complex disease displaying different profiles involving genetic as well as epigenetic factors. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Recent studies demonstrated that miRNAs may display great potential for the development of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In the present study, the levels of miR-21 and miR-145 were analyzed in the peripheral blood of 52 patients with luminal A breast cancer. miRNA expression was determined in serum samples from matched pre- and post-treatment patients with breast cancer by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. There were no statistically significant differences in miR-145 and miR-21 levels between pre- and post-treatment samples. In addition, the miRNA levels were not found to be associated with the clinical parameters.