The aims of the study described here were to investigate familiarity with, knowledge of, and attitudes toward epilepsy and to assess indicators of positive attitudes toward epilepsy. Questionnaires previously developed for the Turkish population were used to assess knowledge and attitudes. Data were collected from 1354 randomly selected adults. Three-quarters of the sample had heard something about epilepsy, and almost half of the sample personally knew someone with epilepsy. The sample had a moderate level of knowledge of and favorable attitudes toward epilepsy in general. Variables that predicted positive attitudes were young age, male gender, and high level of knowledge of epilepsy. The results for both knowledge and attitudes indicate that the findings of the study are largely in line with previous studies, but where there is wide variability among previous findings, the findings for the Turkish population lie, just as Turkey does geographically, between those of the East and West. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.