5. Uluslararası Biyosidal Kongresi, Antalya, Turkey, 5 - 07 March 2021, pp.80
Biofouling results from the accumulation of a wide variety of organisms including microorganisms, plants, algae, mollusks, and hydrozoans on submerged structures in the aquatic environment. Antifouling paint is used to prevent any structures placed in the aquatic environment such as oil rig supports, buoys, fish cages, and ship’s and boat’s hulls to reduce biofouling. Nevertheless, some of these biocides are also toxic to non-target organisms and may be highly persistent in the aquatic environment. For a long period, unsustainable biocides have been applied in paints including organotin compounds such as tributyltin (TBT), arsenic, mercury, and lead but then there were restrictions on the use of these biocides. To enhance the effectiveness of the paint, organic-booster biocides, Irgarol 1051®, DCOIT, dichlofluanid, chlorothalonil, zinc pyrithione, and Zineb are also added as an alternative to TBTs which also adverse effects on aquatic organisms. For instance, chlorothalonil causes behavior changes, and larval mortality in crustaceans, and Irgarol-1051 causes reduction in growth rate and decrease in the photosynthetic activity of algae. Copper-based compounds have become the most used antifouling paints. A microbicide, copper pyrithione, can result in inhibition/alteration of Na/K ATPase and Mg2+ ATPase enzyme activities of crustaceans and mollusks. It also leads to alterations in gill and osmoregulation in teleosts. Besides direct application of the antifouling paints, the spent paint particles which are released in the boatyards and marinas can cause the accumulation of biocidal metals in the tissue of mussels, periwinkles, and lugworms. To minimize the impacts of biocides, they need to be designed to have a large spectrum activity, with low mammalian toxicity, low bioaccumulation rate, and a high degradation rate in the marine environment.