Cell surface antibody-associated central nervous system disorders have emerged in the last decade as a novel field in neuroimmunology. It is now well known that patients with antibodies to ion channels such as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and voltage-gated potassium channel-complex manifest with prominent psychiatric symptoms and particularly psychosis early in the disease course. In this review, major neuronal cell surface autoantibodies related with neuropsychiatric symptoms were discussed with a special emphasis on their potential pathogenicity in neuropsychiatric disorders. Presence of neuronal cell surface antibodies in patients with isolated first episode psychotic disorder, schizophrenia and systemic lupus erythematosus were also discussed. Moreover, a list of diagnostic criteria that might help recognition of neuronal cell surface antibody positive psychosis patients has been proposed.