Purpose. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the type and thickness of the zirconia material on the microhardness of the underlying dual-cure resin cement. Materials and Methods. Eight disk-shaped zirconia specimens with a 4-mm diameter and four varying thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0mm) were fabricated from two different monolithic zirconia materials: posterior monolithic zirconia (Prettau) and anterior monolithic zirconia (Prettau Anterior). Dual-cure resin cement specimens with a 4-mm diameter and 5-mm height were prepared using Teflon cylinder molds and activated by light beneath the eight zirconia disks and without any zirconia disk for 20 s (n=12). A total of 108 specimens were embedded in acrylic. Vickers hardness of each specimen was measured at three different depths using a microhardness device with a 50-g load. All data were statistically evaluated using three-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, independent samples t-tests, and Bonferroni corrected post hoc tests (=.05). Results. Dual-cure resin cement's microhardness was significantly higher for the samples polymerized beneath anterior monolithic zirconia compared to posterior monolithic zirconia. The hardness decreased as the thickness increased for both types of zirconia; the latter was attributed to an attenuated curing efficiency. Conclusion. Microhardness of the dual-cure resin cement is influenced by both the type and the thickness of the monolithic zirconia restoration. Polymerization efficiency for resin cement cured under anterior monolithic zirconia may be superior to cured beneath posterior monolithic zirconia.