[Management and treatment difficulties of multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in a pediatric case].


Torun S. , Acar E. M. , Somer A. , Erkose G. , Satana D. , Bayramoglu Z. , ...More

Mikrobiyoloji bulteni, vol.52, no.1, pp.89-95, 2018 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 52 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.5578/mb.61937
  • Title of Journal : Mikrobiyoloji bulteni
  • Page Numbers: pp.89-95

Abstract

Tuberculosis continues to be a major health problem worldwide. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infection that occurs in childhood is caused by adult MDR-TB agents which are in circulation and resistant to primary drugs. In this case report a 17-month-old child with MDR-TB who was cured after a 24-month therapy regimen was presented. Physical examination of a 17-month-old girl admitted to the hospital with the cause of recurrent pneumonia revealed a rubbery lymphadenopathy less than 2 cm in the right upper cervical region. Crepitant rales were detected in the right basal on auscultation of the lung. Interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) and tuberculin skin (TST) tests were negative. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest showed mediastinal conglomerate pathologic lymphadenopathy and air bronchograms were detected near the lower lobe of the left lung. Treatment of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide with the diagnosis of epituberculosis was started by taking a sample of gastric aspirate culture sample. In the sixth month of the treatment patient was admitted to our clinic with enlarged cervical rubbery lymphadenopathy. It was determined that microbiological test of gastric aspirate culture specimen was positive for M.tuberculosis complex resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, streptomycin, ethionamide and rifabutin. Control CT showed residual peribronchial infiltrations and hilar calcific lymph nodes. Hearing test, vision control and, thyroid function tests were performed and treatment of moxifloxacin, amikacin, para-amino salicylic acid, protionamide and pyrazinamide was started based on minor drug susceptibility results of M.tuberculosis isolate which was still growing in gastric aspirate culture. Gastric aspirate culture for M.tuberculosis was still positive after 3 months of treatment and the current treatment was continued. Amikacin was stopped after 6 months. Therapy regimen was stopped after 24-months. Over the course of a follow-up period of more than 3 years, the clinical and radiological resultsof the patient has improved significantly. The clinical presentation of TB in children is often nonspecific and differs from the patterns seen in adults. MDR-TB cases can be seen in this age group since tuberculosis in children is mainly caused by transmission of drug-resistant strains from adults. This situation is particularly problematic due to the long-term treatment and the lack of specific drug formulations for children.