Dilbilgisi Telif Metotlarının Örnekleri ve Arapça Gramerin Anlaşılmasına Etkis


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Kadhım A. M. K.

Istanbul Journal of Arabic Studies (ISTANBULJAS), vol.5, no.1, pp.33-46, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

Abstract

Extended Abstract

The authors of grammar books followed several approaches; To explain the grammatical rules and the changes that occur in the sentence, From the first moment of the beginning of the grammatical composition, they were divided into several approaches.

Depending on their goal, He decided to set the goal of teaching Arabic grammar to newcomers entering the Islamic religion and those wishing to learn it from the Arabs; their goal focused on the educational aspect; Therefore, their books came with a clear curriculum, easy to take, easy to understand, free from difficult issues.

While another group set the goal of matching the speakers of the philosophers and logicians as a basis for composition; Therefore, we find that the studies of this group were flooded with terms of philosophy and logic, and faced many difficulties and complex issues.

This research aims to identify the grammarians’ methods of writing grammar books, some of which later became systematic books that scholars and learners follow. Extrapolation of the approach they followed by reading those books that were written in different times, following the curriculum and examining the grammatical chapters they wrote; To reach the methodology they adopted in authorship.

The research also aims to extrapolate the time period between the maturation of grammatical composition to the sixth century AH, represented by books, , al-Mofassal by al-Zamakhshari (538 AH), and al-Kafi by Ibn al-Hajeb (646 AH), and the collections of mosques by al-Suyuti (911 AH), and Ibn Aqil’s explanation of Alfiyyah Ibn Malik, as well as a study of a number of modern and contemporary works represented by the Arabic Lessons Collection by Mustafa al-Ghalayini, the applied grammar of Abd al-Rajhi, and the Shafi grammar. Comprehensive for Mahmoud Hosni Maghalsa.

The research followed the descriptive analytical approach, as it studied the way the books were written and how the grammatical and methodological chapters were organized.

After studying some grammatical literature and reviewing other research in this field, the researcher can date two important stages of grammatical composition: The stage of general or overlapping authorship, which is intended to overlap with scientific grammar and morphology, such as the book by Sibawayh (180 AH), the brief by al-Mubarrad (285 AH), the assets of Ibn Al-Sarraj (316 AH) and other works. The stage of clarity of grammatical chapters and their separation from morphological chapters, such as Al-Munsef fi Sharh Al-Mazini’s Tasrif by Ibn Jinni (322 A.H.), Al-Kafi’ah fi Al-Nahwiya and Al-Shafia fi Al-Shafi’i fi Al-Zarf by Ibn Al-Hajeb (646 A.H.), and the Reshuff Al-Darb from Lisan Al-Arab by Abu Hayyan Al-Andalusi (745 A.H.), and others.

The authors differed in addressing and classifying the grammatical chapters, but we can collect some common features for each group of grammatical compositions. There are books that have been classified on the basis of relying on the grammatical function performed by the word in the sentence. The word may fall as a subject, subject, subject, and so on. So the chapters of these books are built on the chapters of (initiation - effectiveness - effectivity .... etc.), such as the book al-Muqtadib by al-Mubarrad, al-Osoul book by Ibn al-Siraj, al-Jamal book by al-Zajji, al-Idihah by Abu Ali al-Nahwi, al-Wahih by Abu Bakr al-Zubaidi, al-Lama` by Ibn Jinni and others. The Alfiya of Ibn Malik and its various explanations, especially Ibn Aqil's commentary on grammar, are a clear example of this approach. Among the recent publications that have followed this methodology is Mahmoud Hosni Magalsa’s book “The Comprehensive Healing Grammar”.

There are books written according to the type of word: that is, the author is divided into three main chapters (nouns, verbs and letters), Al-Mofassal by al-Zamakhshari (538 AH) is the clearest example of this type of grammatical composition, as it was divided into four chapters and he added a chapter that he called the joint.

As for the third type of grammatical composition, it is composition on the basis of the syntactic movement. It is known that the syntax is the change that the factor and its signs and indications are movements, such as the book al-Kafia by Ibn al-Hajib (646 AH). And the collector of Arabic lessons for Mustafa Al-Ghalayini.

The fourth type of grammatical composition is the classification based on the umdah and the virtue, i.e. reliance on the two corners of the Arabic sentence, which are the musnad and the predicate, such as the book Ham` al-Hawa`` by al-Suyuti. And the grammar application book by Abdo Al-Rajhi.

After reviewing this group of ancient and modern grammatical works, it can be said that arranging the topics according to the function of the word, i.e. dividing the chapters into the chapters on recitations, the chapters on al-Mansob, and al-Majroorat is the most comprehensive method.

As for the arrangement of topics on the basis of the type of word, it can lead to a methodological problem represented in the differentiation of topics dealt with by the rule, which does not correspond to the study of the grammar that is taken from the sentence as its basis.

Such will happen if we adopt the syntactic movement alone as a basis for distributing grammatical lessons. It may happen that a word is studied in several chapters, as in Anne and her sisters who were mentioned three times.

As for arranging topics on the basis of Omdah and Fezla, it seems that it is the most acceptable method in the grammar lesson, as the division of lessons will be clear. The method of composing on the basis of knowledge of the predicate and the predicate will lead to the possibility of linking, knowing the parts of the main sentence and their complements, and reaching a clear understanding of the meaning of the sentence.