The effects of regular swimming exercise during sodium valproate treatment on seizure behaviors and EEG recordings in pentylenetetrazole-kindled rats


Acar S., Kapucu A. , Akgun-Dar K.

EPILEPSY RESEARCH, vol.179, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 179
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2021.106830
  • Title of Journal : EPILEPSY RESEARCH
  • Keywords: Epilepsy, Swimming exercise, Sodium valproate, Seizures, Kindling, Learning, Cognition, PHYSICAL-EXERCISE, ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUGS, EPILEPSY, ACID, SUSCEPTIBILITY, DECREASES, HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA, SUPPLEMENTATION, INHIBITION, TOPIRAMATE

Abstract

We investigated the effects of alone/combined regular swimming exercise and sodium valproate on epileptic seizure behaviors and EEG recordings, anti-oxidative mechanism, learning, and memory in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled rats. Forty-eight healthy rats were randomly divided into eight equal groups as control (CONT), swimming exercise (EX), sodium valproate (SV), SV+EX, PTZ, EX+PTZ, SV+PTZ and SV+EX+PTZ. The rats were forced to regular swimming exercise for 60 min every other day, 13 doses of PTZ (40 mg/kg) were given to induce epileptic seizures and 200 mg/kg SV was given for 28 days. Epileptic seizures were evaluated by visual observation and EEG recordings (total spike numbers and number of epileptiform discharges). Memory and learning skills were assessed with passive avoidance test. According to our visual seizure observations, seizure latency was prolonged only in SV+EX+PTZ (p < 0.001) group, seizure severity score decreased in SV+PTZ (p < 0.05) and SV+EX+PTZ (p < 0.001) groups and seizure frequency was reduced in SV+PTZ (p < 0,001), EX+PTZ (p < 0,001), and SV+EX+PTZ (p < 0,001) groups. Total spike numbers and number of epileptiform discharges highly increased in PTZ group, whereas they decreased in swimming exercise and/or SV treatment groups. The most effective result was seen in the combined therapy group. Memory deficit was observed in PTZ -kindling group, but it didn't change with exercise or SV. Based on our results, regular swimming exercise had positive effects on PTZ-induced seizure frequency, and combined therapy of regular swimming exercise and SV is the most effective way to ameliorate visual seizure behaviors and decrease spike numbers and number of epileptiform discharges according to EEG recordings. Regular swimming exercise could be an alternative option to reduce the dose of SV and the side effects of SV can be avoided in clinical aspects.