Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) is one of the most common renal abnormalities in children. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical course and outcome of patients with MCDK. Ninety pediatric patients with unilateral MCDK followed by the Pediatric Nephrology Department of Bakirkoy Maternity and Children's Hospital between 1990 and 2007 were included in this retrospective study. The dimercaptosuccinic acid radionuclide scan revealed no function in MCDK in all of our patients. Voiding cystourethrogram was performed in all patients. Twenty patients (22.2%) had abnormalities in the contralateral kidney. Nephrectomy was performed in 41 patients (45.5%). Twelve patients had undergone routine nephrectomy before 1996. Since then, patients have been followed up conservatively, and nephrectomy has been performed only when indicated. Indication of nephrectomy was arterial hypertension in 16 patients (23.1%), recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) in 11 (15.9%), and severe abdominal pain in two (2.8%). Hypertension was noted within the first year of life in all patients except two. MCDK completely involuted in 39.3% within 48 months. There was no malignant transformation, proteinuria, or renal failure. In conclusion, hypertension is often noticed in infants with MCDK. Uninephrectomy leads to normalization. However, prospective studies are needed to exclude a spontaneous improvement of hypertension.