Anabolic agents are doping substances which are commonly used in sports. Stanozolol, a 17-alkylated derivative of testosterone, has a widespread use among athletes and bodybuilders. Several medical and behavioral adverse effects are associated with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse, while the liver remains the most well recognized target organ. In the present study, the hepatic effects of stanozolol administration in rats at high doses resembling those used for doping purposes were investigated, in the presence or absence of exercise. Stanozolol and its metabolites, 16--hydroxystanozolol and 3-hydroxystanozolol, were detected in rat livers using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Telomerase activity, which is involved in cellular aging and tumorigenesis, was detected by examining telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression levels in the livers of stanozolol-treated rats. Stanozolol induced telomerase activity at the molecular level in the liver tissue of rats and exercise reversed this induction, reflecting possible premature liver tissue aging. PTEN gene expression in the rat livers was practically unaffected either by exercise or by stanozolol administration.