ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound-guided suprascapular block treatment in patients with painful hemiplegic shoulder whose pain was not reduced after conservative treatment.DesignThe patients were those whose hemiplegic shoulder pain was not reduced by standard conservative treatment prior to discharge. The study group (n=21) included patients who had undergone an ultrasound-guided suprascapular nerve block (SSNB). The control group (n=21) were patients who had not undergone SSNB. Both groups undertook home exercise programs. All patients were evaluated at 1week and 1 and 3months after the discharge. Evaluations included shoulder range of motion (ROM), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, EQ-5D-3L for quality of life, the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), and Brunnstrom staging.ResultsThe shoulder ROM significantly increased in the SSNB group at 1-3months, when compared with the baseline value. The shoulder ROM significantly decreased (p?0.05) in the control group at 1-3months, when compared with the baseline value. The pain VAS and EQ-5D-3L scores significantly decreased (p?0.05) after treatment in the follow-ups at 1month in the SSNB group. The control group showed no change from the baseline scores (p?0.05). The MAS scores and Brunnstrom staging did not differ between the two groups.ConclusionThe ultrasound-guided SSNB is a safe and more effective treatment than conservative treatment for painful hemiplegic shoulder. Further studies are needed to compare ultrasound-guided and non-guided suprascapular blocks as treatments for hemiplegic shoulder pain.