PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS, vol.42, no.12, pp.1503-1510, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
Objective Blomstrand osteochondrodysplasia (BOCD, MIM #215045) is an ultrarare lethal skeletal dysplasia (LSD) perinatally, characterized by extremely advanced bone maturation, generalized osteosclerosis, and severe tetramicromelia caused by biallelic loss-of-function mutations in the parathyroid hormone receptor-1 gene (PTHR1). We aim to describe prenatal ultrasonographic features in a retrospective fetal case series of BOCD and emphasize the importance of multidisciplinary antenatal evaluation of LSDs to improve the differential diagnosis. Method Prenatal ultrasound findings of five fetal cases diagnosed with BOCD between 2000 and 2019 in the Prenatal Diagnosis Unit and Medical Genetics were reviewed, along with postmortem examination results and confirmatory molecular results. Results All fetuses presented with severe sonographic findings of LSDs comprising tetramicromelia, thoracic hypoplasia, and retro-micrognathia. Marked cervical hyperextension was present in three fetuses. Flared metaphyses were prenatally identified in only one fetus. X-rays of four fetuses evaluated postmortem showed advanced bone maturation, generalized osteosclerosis, and dumbbell-like appearance of long bones due to metaphyseal enlargement. Conclusion The presence of retro-micrognathia along with a protruding tongue and severe metaphyseal flaring can suggest a diagnosis of BOCD, when prenatal ultrasound findings are indicative for LSD. The diagnosis can be ascertained through postmortem clinical and radiological evaluation and/or molecular testing.