The current study attempted to obtain candidate doubled haploid (DH) wheat lines by serially combining two approaches: conventional chemical mutagenesis and anther culture. Additionally, the salt tolerance levels were examined between stress-treated (100 mM NaCl) and non-treated DH groups. For the molecular analysis, IRAP markers were used to characterize retrotransposon insertion polymorphisms induced by haploidization, chromosome doubling, and/or mutagenesis in the DH lines. Various sodium azide (NaN3) concentrations (from 0 to 5 mM) were applied to seeds of the Pehlivan wheat cultivar to obtain an M-1 generation mutant population. Anther culture was set up from the M-1 mutant population. Green plant regeneration, the frequency of selected candidate mutants within the DH form and the levels of salt tolerance between samples were screened. A total of eight thousand anthers were cultured, and sixteen candidate salt-tolerant DH mutant lines, twenty-seven candidate DH mutant lines with different characteristics and one hundred and two candidate DH lines with morphologically normal appearances were obtained from the NaN3-mutagenized population. The IRAP patterns were quite similar between the control DH lines, and the genetic differences between the controls and DHs originating from possible mutants showed close relatedness. According to previous studies, chemical mutagenesis and anther culture were combined for the first time to detect candidate salt tolerant genotypes at the DH stage. This approach might also be useful for determining the threshold dose and efficiency of wheat mutagens.