Understanding the cellular processes is central to comprehend disease conditions and is also true for cancer research. Proteomic studies provide significant insight into cancer mechanisms and aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. Phosphoproteome is one of the most studied complements of the whole proteome given its importance in the understanding of cellular processes such as signaling and regulations. Over the last decade, several new methods have been developed for phosphoproteome analysis. A significant amount of these efforts pertains to cancer research. The current use of powerful analytical instruments in phosphoproteomic approaches has paved the way for deeper and sensitive investigations. However, these methods and techniques need further improvements to deal with challenges posed by the complexity of samples and scarcity of phosphoproteins in the whole proteome, throughput and reproducibility. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the variety of steps used in phosphoproteomic methods applied in cancer research including the enrichment and fractionation strategies. This will allow researchers to evaluate and choose a better combination of steps for their phosphoproteome studies.