Amoebic gill disease (AGD) was observed in seawater farmed Atlantic salmon at four geographically distant locations on the western coast of Norway. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first detected AGD outbreaks in Norway. The outbreaks lasted for 7-12 weeks in late autumn 2006 and were for the most part concurrent. The crude, cumulative mortality was in the range of 12-20% at three farms and 82% at a fourth. The histopathology showed uniform parasomal amoebae in lesions characteristic for AGD. Another gill disease, proliferative gill inflammation (PGI), was also present to a variable degree and the distinction between the two gill problems is discussed. Seawater temperatures were 3.5 degrees C higher than average before disease outbreaks, which subsided in early winter. The geographical and time pattern of these outbreaks strongly indicates simultaneous infection from the marine environment. Two contiguous 18S cDNA sequences, obtained by reverse transcriptase PCR from gill tissue with AGD-related lesions, showed highest similarity (99.2%) to a newly recognized species designated Neoparamoeba perurans and maximum likelihood analysis demonstrates that they represent Norwegian strains of this Neoparamoeba lineage.