This study investigated whether a high-fructose (HFr) diet changes the morphology of seminiferous tubules (ST) in rats and resveratrol (RES) has a possible restoring effect in this sense. Fructose (30%; w/v) was administered to rats alone or together with RES (50 mg/L) in drinking water for 8 weeks. In the HFr group, destruction of the germinal epithelium led to the detection of immature germ cells in the lumen. HFr diet gave rise to a decrease in the ST diameters (p < 0.05), Johnsen's tubular biopsy score values (p < 0.001), and an increase in the apoptotic index (p < 0.05). Ultrastructurally, HFr feeding increased lipid accumulation (p < 0.01), mitochondrial damage, and acrosomal abnormalities in spermatogenic cells. Treatment of HFr-fed rats with RES improved the reduced ST diameters and overall general histological and ultrastructural abnormalities of the STs, but did not change the increased apoptotic index.