Iskenderun Bay is a major shallow embayment in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea, where the African and Anatolian Plates converge. This tectonically active basin was investigated for oceanographic, sedimentological, geochemical, and foraminiferal parameters. On the basis of the data acquired, the distribution of living and fossil foraminifera in 284 grab and 54 gravity core samples was determined, the basin floor bathymetry of the bay constructed, radiocarbon ages of sediments and fossils ascertained, and depositional environments reconstructed. It has been discovered that for the last 13.5 k.y., water masses were stratified and sedimentation was discontinuous within the basin, which is characterized by irregular sea bottom morphology. The sedimentation rate was very slow, varying in time and space from 0 to 0.012 cm yr(-1). The foraminiferal distributions were spatially varied and discontinuous and indicate a reversal from deep to shallow marine conditions in the cores. These irregularities were attributed to active tectonics in the bay and a major tectonic uplift of the bay since the late Pleistocene.