Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been used to reduce the duration and/or degree of neutropenia of different etiologies in recent years. In this study, experience with the use of G-CSF (Neupogen, Roche) after 123 courses of highly myelosuppressive chemotherapy administered to 31 (20 female, 11 male) patients with pediatric solid tumors is reported. G-CSF was initiated at a white blood cell (WBC) count of 918 +/- 452/mu L (100-2000), at a dose of 7.6 +/- 2.3 mu g/kg/d (5-14) subcutaneously for 5.2 +/- 2.4 days (2-18). G-CSF was given for afebrile neutropenia after 82 and for febrile neutropenia after 41 courses. Only in two episodes where G-CSF was given for afebrile neutropenia, fever developed. The average hospitalization period for febrile neutropenia was 9.8 +/- 3.3 days (5-20). Chemotherapy could be given on scheduled time and dosage in. 90% of the courses in which G-CSF was used for afebrile neutropenia. G-CSF was well tolerated. Bone pain was observed in two patients and urticaria in one patient. In conclusion, G-CSF increased the WBC count effectively, there were only two febrile episodes in 82 courses in children receiving G-CSF for afebrile neutropenia, it was well tolerated, and it was found to be feasible for use in a developing country.