This study describes a laboratory evaluation of the efficacy of two alkylammonium compounds [didecyldimethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC)] when applied via vacuum impregnation or superficial treatment. Treated wood specimens were tested for their termite and microbial resistance under controlled laboratory conditions. The higher chemical retentions were needed to suppress the feeding by Coptotermes formosanus <= 3% mass loss in the multichoice test than in the no-choice test. The DBF and DDAC retention levels necessary to meet the performance requirement <= 3% mass loss after 12-week fungal exposure varied with wood species. The retention level of 3 kg/m(3) stop for DBF and DDAC was generally high to keep the nondurable wood species free of decay. Although there was no difference between DBF and DDAC in the efficacy against decay and termite attack, the former slightly outperformed the latter as an antimold and antisapstain agent.