Istanbul And Sykes-Picot Agreements in the Context of Russian Plans for The Ottoman Geography in World War I

Nazirli Z., Bozkurt A.

TARIH INCELEMELERI DERGISI, vol.36, no.1, pp.287-316, 2021 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 36 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.18513/egetid.974621
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), MLA - Modern Language Association Database, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.287-316
  • Keywords: Tsarist Russia, England, Istanbul Agreement, Sykes-Picot Agreement, Straitsd
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


The political polarization and tension before World War I further highlighted the geopolitical and geostrategic importance of Ottoman geography. By 1914, the Ottoman geography included the Straits, the Black Sea, the Balkans, Anatolia, the Caucasus and the Middle East, where the great powers had conflicts of interest. During the First World War, the Allies designed projects in order to realize their ambitions towards the Ottoman geography and tried to implement them according to the balance of power. In this context, England had designed projects for Iraq and Palestine; France Syria, Lebanon, Chukurova; Italy Western Anatolia; Russia Istanbul, the Straits, Thrace, the Black Sea and the east of Anatolia. This study, which was prepared by making use of archive documents published in Russia and England, aims to examine the Istanbul and Sykes-Picot Agreements, in particular Russia's plans for the Ottoman geography. In the background, it is aimed to be able to evaluate the goals of Britain and France, together with Russia, towards the Ottoman geography.