Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu was an early 15th century surgeon in Anatolia. His masterpiece entitled Cerrahiyetul Haniye (Imperial Surgery) is the first illustrated Surgical textbook in the Turkish Islamic literature of the Ottoman era Anatolia. It is the first written medical-surgical work ill Anatolian history and it covers the treatment of more than 40 illnesses, which range from hydrocephalus to sciatica. This study aims to investigate the contribution of Anatolia 10 neurosurgery through Sabuncuoglu's treatment of sciatica, a problematic and common illness. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.