Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined pathologically by the presence of beta-amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and extensive neuronal loss. Evidence indicates that increased DNA damage may contribute to neuronal loss in AD. Recently, it has been shown that in AD neurons have a reduced capacity for some types of DNA repair. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may be associated with differences in repair efficiency of DNA damage. Variants of several DNA repair genes, including the base excision repair gene XRCC1, have been described previously. We hypothesised that Arg194Trp polymorphism of XRCC1 gene may contribute to genetic susceptibility for AD. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated Arg194Trp polymorphism at the XRCC1 gene in the DNA samples of 98 patients with AD and 95 healthy subjects. The frequency of the Trp allele was more pronounced among cases (11.2%) compared with controls (5.8%). On combining the homozygous and heterozygous variants of each codon, the variants seemed to be at twofold risk of AD, although the risk estimates were not statistically significant (OR=1.95, 95% CI 0.88-4.34, p=0.09). In addition, the 194Trp allele revealed a borderline significance (OR=2.05, 95% CI 0.96-4.37, p=0.056). According to our results, it may be speculated that the polymorphic variants of XRCC1 codon 194 have a role in the development of AD.