The aim of the study was to investigate whether human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele sharing between partners or the maternal killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) repertoire is associated with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and repeated implantation failure after in vitro fertilization (IVF)/embryo transfer. From a total population of 158 RSA couples, 40 couples with repeated implantation failures (IVF) and 81 control couples, reported by five different laboratories, analysis was performed for (a) HLA sharing in 50 RSA, 31 IVF and 31 control couples, (b) DQA1*0505 sharing/homozygosity among partners in 108 RSA, 40 IVF and 36 control couples, and (c) the women's KIR repertoire in 46 RSA, 26 IVF and 36 control wives. RSA couples were divided into alloimmune aborter (RSAallo) and autoimmune aborter (RSAauto). The results oppose to the suggestion that increased HLA sharing per se or a limited maternal KIR repertoire predisposes to RSA or IVF failure. However, the observation of a slightly higher percentage of DQA1*0505 sharing in the RSAauto and the IVF group needs further investigation. The ratio of inhibitory to activating KIR (actKIR) was slightly lower in RSAallo and IVF women (1.9 vs 2.6 in controls), while in a high percentage of these women, the standard receptors of the KIR A haplotype were combined with actKIR/s of the haplotype B (66.6% and 45.4% vs 20% and 15.3% in RSAauto and control groups). This may suggest a possible involvement of actKIRs in embryo implantation and the maintenance of pregnancy and also requires further investigation.