Forest, Wildlife and Wood Sciences for Society Developments, Praque, Czech Republic, 10 - 13 May 2009, pp.604
The forest roads are the base infrastructure foundations which provide access to forest lands for extraction, regeneration, protection, and recreation activities. However, designing low-volume forest roads is a complex engineering problem involving economic, environmental, and social requirements. Construction and maintenance costs are the largest components in the total cost of producing timber for industrial uses.
In this study, forest road construction techniques by using bulldozer were investigated based on sample roads constructions activities conducted in forested lands in Bolu region of Turkey. The environmental damages, cross sections, productivities and construction cost of bulldozer were evaluated and some suggestions were provided. Maximum length and minimum length of fill slope for bulldozer was found 2 and 50 m on 10% and 80% slope gradient. In Caydurt region, the results indicated that total materials excavated along the roadway was 12964 m3 in which the percentages of soil, loose rock and rock were 68.2%, 21.2% and 10.6%, respectively. In road construction activities, explosive was not used for crushing rocks in regions. The total cost of road construction in Caydurt region was found as 32020 $ with the unit cost of $ 8.72 per meter. In this study, the average productivity of the bulldozer to soil, loose rock and rock was found to be 230.3 m3/hr, 136.0 m3/hr and 83.3 m3/ hr, respectivelyThe number of damaged trees and seedlings according to different gradient were determined in study area. The 36% of trees under the forest road construction are wounded and 43% of seedlings are stayed under the soil for 56-80 % ground slope. The rate of wounding in three type damages is 64%. The rate of stay under the soil is 81%.