Glioblastoma cyst fluid contains growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins which are known as neurotrophic and neurite-promoting agents. Therefore, we hypothesized that glioblastoma cyst fluid can promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. To validate this hypothesis, we transected rat sciatic nerve, performed epineural anastomosis, and wrapped the injured sciatic nerve with glioblastoma cyst fluid- or saline-soaked gelatin sponges. Neurological function and histomorphological examinations showed that compared with the rats receiving local saline treatment, those receiving local glioblastoma cyst fluid treatment had better sciatic nerve function, fewer scars, greater axon area, counts and diameter as well as fiber diameter. These findings suggest that glioblastoma cyst fluid can promote the regeneration of injured sciatic nerve and has the potential for future clinical application in patients with peripheral nerve injury.