Purpose To analyze predisposing conditions in Turkish patients with CMV retinitis and to compare HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Methods We reviewed medical charts and ocular images of 41 patients with CMV retinitis diagnosed between 1996 and 2019. Results Eleven patients (27%) had HIV infection and 30 were immunocompromised from diverse causes. Initial visual acuity, type, zone, and extent of CMV retinitis, and response to anti-CMV treatment were not significantly different between the two groups. Vitreous haze and panretinal occlusive vasculopathy were the presenting features only in non-HIV patients, seen in 34% and 16% of eyes, respectively. Although not statistically significant, recurrent CMV retinitis was more common in non-HIV patients (17.4% vs. 4.3%/eye-year) and immune recovery uveitis was more common in HIV patients (43% vs. 26%/eye-year). Visual outcomes were similar. Final visual acuity of 1 logMAR or worse was significantly associated with the recurrence of CMV retinitis (odds ratio 9.67; p = 0.01) and also with the occurrence of immune recovery uveitis (odds ratio 4.31; p = 0.058). Conclusions Diverse immunocompromising conditions are more commonly associated with CMV retinitis than HIV infection in Turkish patients. Intraocular inflammation was more commonly associated with active retinitis in non-HIV patients and immune recovery uveitis was more common in HIV patients.