In short-term, phase III or IV studies in Asian and European patients, pitavastatin 1, 2 and 4 mg once daily reduced LDL-Cholesterol (LDL-C) 34%, 42% and 47%, respectively. Pitavastatin provided sustained LDL-C-lowering efficacy over up to 60 weeks' therapy in extension studies. In comparative studies pitavastatin 4 mg and simvastatin 40 mg reduced LDL-C similarly, reduction in triglycerides and increase in HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C) was more prominent with pitavastatin. In comparative studies with atorvastatin, pitavastatin 4mg was found to be more effective than 20 mg of atorvastatin, and a little less effective than 40 mg of atorvastatin. The increase in HDL-C demonstrated in short term studies sustained in long term, whereas with atorvastatin the increase in HDL-C was less prominent. Pitavastatin was generally well tolerated in these studies and most treatment emergent adverse events were mild or moderate and their frequency was not different from other statins. Pitavastatin did not appear to adversely affect glucose metabolism parameters (e.g. fasting blood glucose, fasting plasma insulin, glycated hemoglobin) in short-and longer-term prospective and post-marketing surveillance studies in adults. In conclusion, pitavastatin is an effective treatment option in adults with primary hypercholesterolemia and combined (mixed) dyslipidemia, including those at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.