ObjectivesTo identify prognostic factors and indications in patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and to demonstrate their effect on mortality.MethodsA total of 63 patients admitted between 2011 and 2014 were included in the study. The demographic information, pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) scores, vasoactive-inotropic score, indication for CRRT, time of starting CRRT, presence of fluid overload, durations of CRRT, and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay were compared between survivors and non-survivors.ResultsThe overall rate of survival was 69,8%. The most common indication for CRRT was fluid overload (31.7%) followed by acute attacks of metabolic diseases (15.9%), and resistant metabolic acidosis (15.9%). The median duration of CRRT was 58 (IQR 24-96) h. The most common CRRT modality was continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. The CRRT modality was not different between survivors and nonsurvivors. Sepsis, as the diagnosis for admission to intensive care unit was significantly related to decreased survival when compared to acute kidney injury and acute attacks of metabolic diseases. Patients with fluid overload had significantly increased rate of death, CRRT duration, use of mechanical ventilation, and PICU stay.ConclusionsThe CRRT, can be effectively used for removal of fluid overload, treatment of acute attacks of metabolic diseases, and other indications in critically ill pediatric patients. It has a positive effect on mortality in high-risk PICU patients. This treatment modality can be used more frequently in pediatric intensive care unit with improved patient outcomes, and should be focused on starting therapy in early stages of fluid overload.