Selective Determination of Catechin among Phenolic Antioxidants with the Use of a Novel Optical Fiber Reflectance Sensor Based on Indophenol Dye Formation on Nano-sized TiO2

Apak R., Cekic S. D., Cetinkaya A., Filik H., Hayvali M., Kilic E.

JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol.60, no.11, pp.2769-2777, 2012 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 60 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/jf204061s
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.2769-2777
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


The optical sensor for "tea catechins" was built by immobilizing 2,2'-(1,4-phenylenedivinylene)bis-8-hydroxyquinoline (PBHQ) on TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). The sensor worked by "indophenol blue" dye formation on PBHQ:irnmobilized TiO2 NPs as a result of p-aminophenol (PAP) autoxidation with dissolved O-2 at pH 10. Among quercetin, rutin, naringenin, naringin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, and trolox, only catechin group antioxidants delayed the color formation on NPs, as measured by the reflectance signal at 710 nm. For quantitative analysis, reflectance signal versus time was recorded, and the difference between the areas under curve (Delta AUC) in the presence and absence of catechin was correlated (r = 0.98) to catechin concentration. The selectivity of the sensor for catechins was shown in tea infusions compared to other plant extracts and was ascribed to the nonplanar structure of catechin interfering with the formation of perfectly conjugated indophenol blue on TiO2 surface.