Using Mixed Integer Goal Programming in Final Yield Harvest Planning: A Case Study from the Mediterranean Region of Turkey

Demirci M., YEŞİL A., Bettinger P.

FORESTS, vol.11, no.7, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/f11070744
  • Journal Name: FORESTS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, Environment Index, Geobase, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: No


A mixed integer goal programming model is developed to address the regeneration planning problems of even-aged forests in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The unique aspect of the goal programming formulation is to minimize deviations in scheduled wood product volumes and the size of harvest areas within each time period, as these are important goals for the management area. About 98% of the forests in Turkey are considered even-aged, and 2% are uneven-aged. Therefore, an age class method is used for the planning of even-aged forests. For the areas where this method is applied, reaching the optimal age class structure is the first priority. This involves implementing final harvests (clearcuts) to regenerate an amount of forest area into each age class. To meet the local market's needs, forest enterprises also require the final yield to be fairly equal each year. Further, it is desired that the harvest area (regeneration area) is relatively equal each year, to address operational considerations. A linear goal programming model is developed to address the problem. The minimization of deviations from both the harvest area and harvest volume targets are incorporated as goals in the objective function of the model. Several scenarios are solved using the extended version of Lingo 16. A scenario with weights of 0.8 for area and 0.2 for volume produces the best results. Here, the total deviation for 20 years is 3.8 ha in area and 2889 m(3)in volume. In the actual regeneration plan, the area deviation for 10 years is 54.72 ha (6.2% of total regeneration area), and the volume deviation is 20,472 m(3)(9.8% of harvest volume). The model described through this study can be developed further and integrated into forest management planning software and processes used for the planning of even-aged forests in the Mediterranean region.