Risk assessment for children exposed to DDT residues in various milk types from the Greek market


TSAKIRIS I. N. , GOUMENOU M., Tzatzarakis M. N. , Alegakis A. K. , TSITSIMPIKOU C., Ozcagli E. , ...More

FOOD AND CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY, vol.75, pp.156-165, 2015 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 75
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.fct.2014.11.012
  • Title of Journal : FOOD AND CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY
  • Page Numbers: pp.156-165
  • Keywords: DDT, Organochlorine pesticides, Exposure assessment, Risk assessment, GC-MS, Milk, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE-RESIDUES, COWS MILK, DIETARY-INTAKE, FOOD, CONTAMINANT, POPULATION, EXPOSURES, PRODUCTS, SAMPLES

Abstract

The occurrence of residues of DDT and its metabolites was monitored in 196 cow milk samples of various pasteurized commercial types collected from the Greek market. Residue levels were determined by GC-MS analysis. In 97.4% of the samples at least one DDT isomer or one of the DDT metabolites was detected, in levels not exceeding the maximum permitted residue level by the EU. Hazard Index for both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects was estimated under two assumptions: a) using DDT concentrations from positive samples and b) imputing LOD/2 as an arbitrary concentration for negative samples. No statistically significant differences in detected or summed residue (p > 0.05) concentrations between different milk types were observed, with the exception of specific metabolites of DDT in some milk types. Exposure assessment scenarios were developed for children aged 1, 3, 5, 7 and 12 years old based on estimated body weights and daily milk consumption. Hazard Indices for non-carcinogenic effects were below 0.109 covering also carcinogenic effects according to WHO approach. The cancer risk values for carcinogenic effects according to the US EPA Cancer Benchmark Concentration approach, ranged from 0.4 to 18. For both effects the highest values were calculated for the 1- to 3-year-old age groups. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.