Background This study aimed to investigate whether the systemic inflammatory parameters currently in use in staging the disease can be used as biomarker tests operated colon cancer patients. Neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, platelet, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR), neutrophil/monocyte ratio (NMR), CRP, albumin, lymphocyte/CRP ratio, CRP/albumin ratio, and neutrophil/albumin ratio as systemic inflammatory biomarkers and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) were evaluated. Methods This retrospective study included 592 patients. Patients with colon cancer in the cohort were divided into 2 subgroups: Tumor, nodes, metastases (TNM) stage 0, TNM stage 1, and TNM stage 2; early stage (n: 332) and TNM stage 3 and TNM stage 4; late stage (n: 260) colon cancer patients. Results LDH (P < .001), NLR (P < .001), PLR (P < .05), CRP/albumin (P < .01), and neutrophil/albumin (P < .01) were significantly higher, while monocyte count (P < .05) and PNI (P < .01) were found to be significantly lower in late stage colon cancer patients than in early stage colon cancer patients. Moderate negative correlation was found between the PNI and the neutrophil/albumin ratio in late stage colon cancer patients (r: -.568, P < .001). Conclusions Our data suggest that high serum LDH, NLR, PLR, CRP/albumin, and neutrophil/albumin may be useful predictive markers for advanced stage in colon cancer. According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis results, CRP/albumin ratio can be used to discriminate early from late stage. Preoperative low monocyte count and PNI are associated with postoperative staging patients with colon cancer.