Anatolia has been an important region for civilizations and agricultural revolution as a major domestication centre for livestock species. Goats (Capra hircus) were among the earliest domesticated animals in this region. In this study, genetic diversity of Anatolian goat breeds was characterized by comparison of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region 1. A total of 295 individuals, including 99 Anatolian Black goats, 96 Angora goats and 100 Kilis goats, were used. Haplogroup A was found to be the dominant haplogroup in all three breeds. The highest haplogroup diversity, including haplogroups A, B2, C and G, was observed in the Anatolian Black breed. Haplogroup D was only observed in Kilis and Angora goats. Haplogroup G was found in Angora and Anatolian Black breeds. The Anatolian goat breeds had high genetic diversity values and a weak phylogeographical structure. The nucleotide diversity values were found to be higher than those in previously studied goat breeds. The fact that Anatolia is a domestication centre and its geographical position as a junction of trade routes may have caused the higher genetic diversity of Anatolian goat breeds.